National Domestic Violence Hotline
What is Domestic Violence?
Domestic violence is a learned pattern of physical, verbal, sexual and/or emotional behavior in which one person in a relationship uses force and intimidation to dominate or control the other person. The partners may be married or not; heterosexual or homosexual; living together, separated, dating, have a child in common; or related by blood. Domestic violence occurs within all ethnic groups, all religions, all economic brackets, all degrees of physical and mental ableness; all categories of sexual preference and all age groups.
Incidents of domestic violence may lead to a number of criminal charges, for example: battery, attempted murder, trespassing, intimidation, stalking, harassment, or sexual assault.
Domestic violence is NOT a lack of control.
Domestic violence is complete and total control; the abusive person knows EXACTLY what s/he is doing and why.
Women are NOT "just as violent as men"; 80-95% of domestic assaults are perpetuated by heterosexual men upon heterosexual women.
Types of Domestic Violence-
Physical Abuse- pinching; shoving; kicking; grabbing; jerking; slapping; punching; spitting on; pulling hair or ears; scratching; strangling; twisting arms; bending back fingers or toes; restraining against will; throwing out of a vehicle; dragging; imprisoning; throwing objects at; burning; throwing down stairs, against a wall or furniture, etc.
Sexual Abuse- rape (often after a battery or when victim is asleep); forcing to perform degrading and/or humiliating acts; forcing victim to "perform" in front of others or her children; forcing victim to "pose" for degrading and/or humiliating pictures, etc.
Emotional Abuse- name-calling; put downs; insults; extreme "jealousy" (possessiveness); criticism; sexual "jokes"; degrading references; withholding affection as her "punishment"; "jokes" concerning the victim’s appearance, mannerisms, faults, gender; threats and intimidation; insulting victim’s abilities as a mother, wife, lover; resenting and/or mistreating children because of attention victim shows her children; accusing victim of having affairs; telling victim about his affairs; threatening to abuse and/or take children away from victim; threatening to kill self and/or children if she tries to leave him; threatening to assault others (victim’s mother, sisters, best friend) if she tries to leave him; screaming and yelling; ignoring victim when she is trying to talk to him; demanding that victim account for every minute of her day; icy silences; "teaching" her a lesson; disregard and/or total dislike of women; gross selfishness; dishonesty; male entitlement; manipulation; arrogance; always blaming his decisions and behaviors on victim; exploiting any perceived weakness the victim may have; Dr. Jekyll/ Mr. Hyde syndrome; etc.
Economic Abuse- Economic abuse occurs where the man has control over all financial resources. For example, he may forbid the woman to work, or, if she does, he may insist that she hand over her paycheck to him. She may have to beg for money to buy necessities and when it is given, it may often be insufficient. She is then criticized for being stupid and incompetent in failing to provide adequately with her "allowance".
Social Abuse- Behaviors included in social abuse are: delivering verbal abuse in front of other people, such as: put-downs, "jokes", criticisms about woman’s weight, appearance, sexuality, intelligence, etc.; controlling behaviors such as following her to work, controlling access to friends, constant phone calls at work, or accusations of imagined affairs etc.; isolating a woman by denigrating her friends and family, thus leading her to cut herself off from them; locking the woman in or out of the house, cutting off the telephone, never letting her use the car, etc. Social abuse is the constant monitoring and control of a woman’s activities, outings, and friendships.
National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence
For additional statistical information please see:
Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet
Lloyd and Taluc (1999) found that women who experienced male-perpetrated IPV were more likely to experience spells of unemployment, have health problems, and be welfare recipients.
GROUPS VULNERABLE TO VICTIMIZATION
RISK FACTORS FOR PERPETRATION
A combination of individual, relational, community, and societal factors contribute to the risk of perpetrating IPV. To understand and prevent IPV, it is important to understand and identify these risk factors. A risk factor is anything that increases the likelihood that a person will perpetrate IPV. However, risk factors are not necessarily causes and not everyone who is identified as "at-risk" becomes involved in violence.
Risk factors exist at each level of the social ecology, which contribute to IPV perpetration. At the individual level, risk factors include attitudes and beliefs; at the relational level, risk factors include interpersonal and verbal interactions and family/relationship norms. At the community level and the larger societal level, risk factors include social norms and institutional structures, policies, and procedures.
Individual Factors for Perpetrating IPV
Recent research reviews of male perpetrators link several risk factors to IPV (Black et al. 1999; Harway and O’Neil 1999):
Relationship Factors for Perpetrating IPV
Recent research reviews link several relational risk factors to IPV perpetration (Heise and Garcia-Moreno 2002; Kantor and Jasinski 1998; Harway and O’Neil 1999):
Community Factors for Perpetrating IPV
Recent research reviews link several community risk factors to perpetrating IPV (Heise and Garcia-Moreno 2002; Counts, Brown and Campbell 1992):
VULNERABILITY FACTORS FOR VICITIMIZATION
To understand and prevent IPV, it is important to understand and identify vulnerability factors. A vulnerability factor is anything that increases the likelihood that a person will experience IPV. However, vulnerability factors are not necessarily causes and exist without the occurrence of IPV. The following vulnerability factors increase the likelihood of experiencing IPV:
Individual Factors Increasing Vulnerability to IPV
Recent research reviews identify several individual vulnerability factors related to IPV (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000a; Crandall et al. 2004; Rennison 2000):
Relationship Factors Increasing Vulnerability to IPV
Recent research reviews identify several relational vulnerability factors related to IPV (Heise and Garcia-Moreno 2002):
Bailey JE, et al. Risk factors for violent death of women in the home. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997;157:777–82.
Black DA, et al. Partner, child abuse risk factor literature review: national network of family resiliency, national network for health [online]. 1999. [cited Aug 2004]. Available at: http://www.nnh.org/risk.
Campbell J, Jones AS, Dienemann J, Kub J, Schollenberger J, O’Campo P, et al. Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002;162(10):1157–63.
Campbell JC, Webster D, Koziol-McLain J, Block C, Campbell D, Curry MA, et al. Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93(7):1089–97.
CDC. Costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2003. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm.
Counts DA, Brown J, Campbell J. Sanctions and sanctuary: cultural perspectives on the beating of wives. Boulder (CO): Westview Press; 1992.
Crandall M, Nathens AB, Kernic MA, Holt VL, Rivara FP. Predicting future injury among women in abusive relationships. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2004;56(4):906–12.
Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Spitz AM, Goodwin MM, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. Violence and reproductive health: current knowledge and future research directions. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):79–84.
Harway M, O’Neil JM, editors. What causes men’s violence against women? Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage; 1999.
He H, McCoy HV, Stevens SJ, Stark MJ. Violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among female sex partners of male drug users. Women’s Health 1998:27:161–75.
Heise L, Garcia-Moreno C. Violence by intimate partners. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
Heise L, Moore K, Toubia N. Sexual coercion and women’s reproductive health: a focus on research. New York: Population Council; 1995.
Kantor GK, Jasinski JL. Dynamics and risk factors in partner violence. In: Jasinski JL, Williams LM, editors. Partner violence: a comprehensive review of 20 years of research. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage; 1998.
Koss MP, Koss PG, Woodruff WJ. Deleterious effects of criminal victimization on women’s health and medical utilization. Archives of Internal Medicine 1991;151:342–7.
Krug EG, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, editors. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
Lesserman J, et al. Sexual and physical abuse history in gastroenterology practice: how types of abuse impact health status. Psychosomatic Medicine 1996;58:4–15.
Lloyd S, Taluc N. The effects of male violence on female employment. Violence Against Women 1999;5:370–92.
Mercy JA, Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB. Violence and health: the United States in global perspective. Am J Public Health 2003;92:256.
Nelson HD, Nygren P, McInerney Y, Klein J. Screening women and elderly adults for family and intimate partner violence: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004; 140(5):387–96.
Paulozzi LJ, Saltzman LA, Thompson MJ, Holmgreen P. Surveillance for homicide among intimate partners—United States, 1981–1998. CDC Surveillance Summaries 2001;50(SS-3):1–16.
Rennison C. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2001. Washington (DC): Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice; 2003. Publication No. NCJ197838.
Rennison C. Intimate Partner Violence, Special Report 1993–2000. Washington (DC): Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice; 2000. Publication No. NCJ178247.
Roberts TA, Klein JD, Fisher S. Longitudinal effect of intimate partner abuse on high-risk behavior among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2003;157(9):875–81.
Saltzman LE, Fanslow JL, McMahon PM, Shelley GA. Intimate Partner Violence Surveillance Uniform Defintions and Recommended Data Elements version 1.0. Atlanta (GA): National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2002.
Sheehan K, Kim LE, Galvin JP. Urban Children’s Perceptions of Violence. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2004; 158(1):74-77.
Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, research report. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Justice; 2000a. Report for grant 93-IJ-CX-0012, funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication No. NCJ 181867. Available at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/181867.htm.
Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Justice; 2000b. Publication No. NCJ183781. Available at: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/183781.txt.
For more information see:
|Return to Home|